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People and Neanderthals Have Evolved from a Common Ancestor Mystery, Suggests Large Tests



  People and Neanderthals Generated from a Mysterious Common Ancestor, Providing Huge Studs

Here, a cast from a reconstructed skull of Neanderthals. Researchers only examine teeth shape to Neanderthals, people and our close relatives to find out if groups have been diverged.

Credit: Getty Images

Modern people and Neanderthals may have been diverged at least 800,000 years ago, according to an analysis of nearly 1

,000 teeth from people and our near relative The children.

This new estimate is older than previous estimates based on ancient DNA tests, in which the split between humans and Neanderthals occurs between 500,000 and 300,000 years ago. Outside the researchers called the new dental exaggeration, they note that it is based on a big assumption: that the shape of the tooth changes in a stable way, especially in Neanderthals. If the shape of the tooth does not change at a steady level, then "the construction of this paper has fallen," says Fernando Ramirez Rozzi, director of research specializing in human evolution at the National Center for Scientific Research of France in Toulouse, not involved in the study. [Photos: See the Ancient Faces of a Man-Bun Wearing Bloke and a Neanderthal Woman]

It is said that it is possible that the teeth (and the Neanderthals teeth in particular) change at a predictable rate, meaning the calculation of the new study may be on target. "Right now, there is a change in the evolutionary shape of the cheek shape," says Ramirez Rozzi.

Researchers examine the 931 teeth with the lowest 122 individuals from eight groups, including people and our close relatives. Of these, 164 teeth are from the first Neanderthals from the Sima de los Huesos ("Pit of Bones") area of ​​Spain, a sample that includes nearly 30 individuals who lived about 430,000 years ago, in during the central Pleistocene epoch.

  Of all, scientist Aida Gómez-Robles examined 931 teeth with the lowest 122 individuals.

Of all, scientists Aida Gómez-Robles examined 931 teeth with the lowest 122 individuals.

Credit: Aida Gómez-Robles

By comparing dental-shape differences between examples, the study's researcher, Aida Gomez-Robles, a paleoanthropologist at University College London, Evolutionary rates are calculated for dental change and then estimate the difference in time from the last common ancestor between people and Neanderthals.

The result – that Neanderthals and modern humans were likely to deviate more than 800,000 years ago – shows that the last common ancestor of these two groups is probably not Homo heidelbergensis " H. heidelbergensis can not occupy evolutionary positions because it shows the difference between Neanderthals and modern humans, "Gomez-Robles told Live Science in an email. "That means we have to look at the older species when looking for the common species of ancestors."

The discovery "has a profound implication in the way we interpret fossil record and evolutionary relationships between species," says Gomez-Robles. .

The collapse of the difference between Neanderthals and modern humans "opens a new door" because it indicates that the two groups differ for longer than previously thought, said by Ramirez Rozzi.

It raises a question, he said. People and Neanderthals cooperated around 60,000 years ago, when modern humans left Africa. (This interbreeding explains why the genome of some modern humans contains nearly 3% Neanderthal DNA.) But if people and Neanderthals broke down at least 800,000 years ago, they were surprised has still interbreed about 60,000 years ago, Ramirez Rozzi said. "In other words, almost 1 million years of evolution is not enough to establish barriers (genetic, endocrinological, behavioral, etc.) to separate these two kinds?"

Gomez-Robles, "a prominent specialist of neanderthal lineage dental morphology," said Bruno Maureille, director of research at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), in Paris, who was not involved to study.

However, the remains of Neanderthals from different European pockets have "own particularities," Maureille said in Live Science. "Can we just try to draw such a global situation [I’m] not sure."

The study was published online May 16 in the journal Science Advances.

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